A. Douglas Kinghorn

A. Douglas Kinghorn

A. Douglas Kinghorn, PhD, DSc

Professor and Jack L. Beal Chair
Unit / Department / Division
Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy
446 Parks Hall
Email Address
Phone Number

Professional Interests

Professional Interests

The research interests of Dr. Kinghorn are on the isolation, characterization, and biological evaluation of natural products of higher plant origin, and he has worked in particular on compounds with potential antimicrobial, cancer chemotherapeutic, cancer chemopreventive, sweet-tasting, and bitterness-blocking effects. Dr. Kinghorn is the former Editor in Chief (1994-2019) and current Emeritus Editor (2020-present) of the "Journal of Natural Products" (co-published by the American Chemical Society and the American Society of Pharmacognosy) and is Series Editor in Chief of the book series "Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products" (published by Springer Nature, Cham, Switzerland) (2008-present).


  • 1990, D.Sc., University of London
  • 1975, Ph.D., University of London
  • 1970, M.S., University of Strathclyde
  • 1969, B.Pharm. (Special), University of Bradford


  • Egon Stahl Award in Gold, GA (Society of Medicinal Plant and Natural Product Research), 2020
  • Dr. Norman R. Farnsworth Keynote Lecturer, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2016
  • Distinguished Scholar Awardee (DSA), The Ohio State University, 2016
  • Coy W. Waller Distinguished Lecture Award, University of Mississippi, 2014
  • David Chu Lecture Award, University of Buffalo, 2014
  • Honorary Member, Phytochemical Society of Asia, 2012
  • Honorary Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) degree, University of Bradford, 2011
  • Norman R. Farnsworth Excellence in Botanical Research Award, American Botanical Council, Austin, TX, 2011
  • Norman R. Farnsworth ASP Research Achievement Award, American Society of Pharmacognosy 2010
  • Award of Merit, National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, 2010
  • Percy Julian Memorial Lecture Award, Howard University, 2010

Journal Articles

  • Chang LS, Oblinger JL, Burns SS, Huang J, Anderson LW, Hollingshead MG, Shen R, Pan L, Agarwal G, Ren Y, Roberts RD, O'Keefe BR, Kinghorn AD, Collins JM. Targeting Protein Translation by Rocaglamide and Didesmethylrocaglamide to Treat MPNST and Other Sarcomas. Mol Cancer Ther. 2020 Mar;19(3):731-741.
  • Agarwal G, Carcache PJB, Addo EM, Kinghorn AD. Current status and contemporary approaches to the discovery of antitumor agents from higher plants. Biotechnol Adv. 2020 Jan-Feb;38:107337.
  • Ren Y, Ribas HT, Heath K, Wu S, Ren J, Shriwas P, Chen X, Johnson ME, Cheng X, Burdette JE, Kinghorn AD. Na +/K +-ATPase-Targeted Cytotoxicity of (+)-Digoxin and Several Semisynthetic Derivatives. J Nat Prod. 2020 Mar 27;83(3):638-648.
  • Shriwas P, Chen X, Kinghorn AD, Ren Y. Plant-derived glucose transport inhibitors with potential antitumor activity. Phytother Res. 2020 May;34(5):1027-1040.
  • Anaya-Eugenio GD, Eggers NA, Ren Y, Rivera-ChÁvez J, Kinghorn AD, Carcache DE Blanco EJ. Apoptosis Induced by (+)-Betulin Through NF-κB Inhibition in MDA- MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells. Anticancer Res. 2020 Dec;40(12):6637-6647.
  • Ren Y, Kinghorn AD. Development of Potential Antitumor Agents from the Scaffolds of Plant-Derived Terpenoid Lactones. J Med Chem. 2020 Dec 24;63(24):15410-15448.
  • Ren Y, Tan Q, Heath K, Wu S, Wilson JR, Ren J, Shriwas P, Yuan C, Ngoc Ninh T, Chai HB, Chen X, Soejarto DD, Johnson ME, Cheng X, Burdette JE, Kinghorn AD. Cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic cardiac glycosides isolated from the combined flowers, leaves, and twigs of Streblus asper. Bioorg Med Chem. 2020 Feb 15;28(4):115301.
  • Zhang Y, Tan CY, Spjut RW, Fuchs JR, Kinghorn AD, Rakotondraibe LH. Specialized metabolites of the United States lichen Niebla homalea and their antiproliferative activities. Phytochemistry. 2020 Dec;180:112521.
  • Anaya-Eugenio GD, Blanco Carcache PJ, Ninh TN, Ren Y, Soejarto DD, Kinghorn AD. A pentamethoxylated flavone from Glycosmis ovoidea promotes apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway and inhibits migration of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Phytother Res. 2020 Oct 30.
  • Young, A.N., D. Herrera, A.C. Huntsman, M.A. Korkmaz, D.D. Lantvit, S. Mazumdar, S, Kolli, C. Coss, S. King, H. Wang, S.M. Swanson, A.D. Kinghorn, X. Zhang, M.A. Phelps, L.N. Aldrich, J.R. Fuchs, and J.E. Burdette. 2018. Phyllanthusmin derivatives induce apoptosis and reduce tumor burden in high grade serous ovarian cancer by late-stage authophagy inhibition. Mol. Cancer Ther. 17:2123-2135.
  • Ren, Y., G.D. Anaya-Eugenio, A.A. Czarnecki, T.N. Ninh, C. Yuan, H.-B. Chai, D.D. Soejarto, J.E. Burdette, E.J. Carcache de Blanco, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2018. Cytotoxic and NF-kB and mitochondrial transmembrane potential inhibitory pentacyclic triterpenoids from Syzygium corticosum and their semi-synthetic derivatives. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 26:4452-4460.
  • Woodard, J.L., A.C. Huntsman, P.A. Patel, H.-B. Chai, R. Kanagasabai, S. Karmahapatra, A.N. Young, Y. Ren, J.C. Yalowich, A.D. Kinghorn, J.E. Burdette, and J.R. Fuchs. 2018. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of derivatives of the phyllanthusmin class of arylnaphthalene lignan lactones. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 26:2354-2364
  • Ren, Y, J.C. Gallucci, X. Li, L. Chen, J. Yu, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2018. Crystal structures and human leukemic cell inducible activities of parthenolide analogues isolated from Piptocoma rufescens. J. Nat. Prod. 81:554-561. (Special issue in honor of Dr. Susan Band Horwitz).
  • Oblinger, J.L., Burns, S.S., Huang, J., Pan, L., Ren, Y., Shen, R., Kinghorn, A.D., Welling, D.B., and Chang, L.-S. 2018. Overexpression of eIF4F components in meningiomas and suppression of meningioma cell growth by inhibiting translation initiation. Exp. Neurol. 299:299-307.
  • Henkin, J.M., K. Sydara, M. Xayvue, O. Souliya, A.D. Kinghorn, J.E. Burdette, W.-L. Chen, and B. Elkington. 2017. Revisiting the linkage between ethnomedical use and development of new medicines: A novel plant collection strategy towards the discovery of anticancer agents. J. Med. Plants Res. 11:621-634.
  • Li, J, C. Yuan, L. Pan, P.A. Benatrahina, H. Chai, W.J. Keller, C.B. Naman, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2017. Bioassay-guided isolation of antioxidant and cytoprotective constituents from a Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) fruit extract as markers for qualitative and quantitative analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem.65:8634-8642.
  • Oghumu, S., S. Varikati, N. Saljoughian, C. Terazas, A.C. Huntman, N.L. Parinandi, J.R. Fuchs, A.D. Kinghorn, and A.R. Satoskar. 2017. Pentalinonsterol, a constituent of Pentalinon andrieuxii, possesses potent immunomodulatory activity and primes T cell immune responses. J. Nat. Prod. 80:2515-2523.
  • Ren, Y., J.C. Gallucci, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2017. An intramolecular CAr‒H•••O=C hydrogen bond and the configuration of rotenoids. Planta Med. 83:1194-1199. (Special issue in honor of Professor Dr. M. Wichtl).
  • Chen, W.-L., Y. Ren, J. Ren, C. Erxleben, M.E. Johnson, S. Gentile, A.D. Kinghorn, S.M. Swanson, and J..E. Burdette. 2017. (+)-Strebloside-induced cytotoxicity in ovarian cells is mediated through cardiac glycoside signaling networks. J. Nat. Prod. 80:659-669. (Special issue in honor of Professor Philip Crews).
  • Ren, Y., W.-L. Chen, D.D. Lantvit, E.J. Sass, Pratik Shriwas, T.N. Ninh, H.-B. Chai X. Zhang, D.D. Soejarto, X. Chen, D.M. Lucas, S.M. Swanson, J.E. Burdette, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2017. Cardiac glycoside constituents of Streblus asper with potential antineoplastic activity. J. Nat. Prod. 80:659-669. (Special issue in honor of Professor Philip Crews).
  • Harms, H., K.L. Kurita, L. Pan, P.G. Wahome, H. He, A.D. Kinghorn, G.T. Carter, and R.G. Linington. 2016. Discovery of anabaenopeptin 679 from freshwater algal bloom material: Insights into the structural relationship of anabaenopeptin protease inhibitors. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 15:4960-4965.
  • Oblinger, J.L., S.S. Burns, J. Huang, L. Pan, Y. Ren, R. Shen, B. Miles-Markley, A.C. Moberly, A.D. Kinghorn, D.B. Welling, and L.-S. Chang. 2016. Components of the eiF4F complex are potential therapeutic targets for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and vestibular schwannoma. Neuro-Oncology 18:1265-1277.
  • Ren, Y., P.A. Benatrhina, U. Muñoz Acuña, C. Yuan, H.-B. Chai, T.N. Ninh, E.J. Carcache de Blanco, D.D. Soejarto, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2016. Isolation of bioactive rotenoids and isoflavonoids from the fruits of Millettia caerulea. Planta Med. 82:1096-1104. (Special issue in honor of Emeritus Prof. Dr. Kurt Hostettmann).
  • Othman, N, L. Pan, M. Mejin, J. Voong, H. Chai, C.M. Pannell, A.D. Kinghorn, and T.C. Yeo. 2016. Cyclopenta[b]benzofuran and secodammarane derivatives from the stems of Aglaia stellatopilosa. J. Nat. Prod. 79:784-791.
  • Naman, C.B., A.D. Gromovsky, C.M. Vela, J.N. Fletcher, G. Gupta, S. Varikuti, X. Zhe, E.M. Zywot, H. Chai, K.A. Werbovetz, A.R. Satoskar, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2016. Antileishmanial and cytotoxic activity of some highly oxidized abietane diterpenoids from the Bald Cypress, Taxodium distichum. J. Nat. Prod. 79:596-606. (Special issue in honor of Professors John Blunt and Murray Munro).
  • Chen, W.-L., L. Pan, A.D. Kinghorn, S.M. Swanson, and J.E. Burdette. 2016. Silvestrol induces autophagy and apoptosis in human melanoma cells. BMC Cancer 16 (1):17.
  • Gaurav, G., K. Peine, D. Abdelhamid, H. Snider, A. Shelton, L. Rao, S. Kotha, A.C. Hunstman, S. Varikuti, S. Oghumi, C.B. Naman, L. Pan, N. Paranandi, T. Pappenfuss, A.D. Kinghorn, E. Bachelder, K. Ainslie, J.R. Fuchs, and A.R. Satoskar. 2015. A novel sterol isolated from the plant used used by Mayan traditional healers is effective in treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. ACS Infect. Dis. 1:497-506. (Cited in the “From the Scenes” section of Chemical & Engineering News, September 28, 2015, p. 37. The new sterol mentioned in this paper, pentalinonsterol, was named as the American Chemical Society “Molecule of the Week” on January 26, 2016).
  • Ren, Y., A. VanSchoiack, H.-B. Chai, M. Goetz, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2015. Cytotoxic barringenol-like triterpenoids from an extract of Cyrilla racemiflora housed in a repository. J. Nat. Prod. 78:2440-2446.
  • Pan, L., U. Muñoz Acuña, H. Chai, H.-Y. Park, T.N. Ninh, B.V. Thanh, E.F. Merino, M.B. Cassera, L.H. Rakotondraibe, E.J. Carcache de Blanco, D.D. Soejarto, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2015. New bioactive lupane triterpene coumaroyl esters isolated from Buxus cochinchinensis. Planta Med. 81:1133-1140. (Special issue in honor of the 75th birthday of Prof. Dr. Adolf Nahrstedt).
  • Naman, C.B., J. Li, A. Moser, J.M. Hendrycks, P.A. Benatrehina, H. Chai, C. Yuan, W.J. Keller, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2015. Computer-assisted structure elucidation of black chokeberry (Aronia melocarpa) fruit juice isolates with an unprecedented fused pentacyclic flavonoid skeleton. Org. Lett. 17:2988-2991.
  • Naman, C.B., G. Gupta, S. Varikuti, H. Chai, R.W. Doskotch, A.R. Satoskar, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2015. Northalrugosidine is a bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid from Thalictrum alpinum with in vivo antileishmanial activity. J. Nat. Prod. 78:552-556. (Special issue in honor of Dr. William Fenical).
  • Patton, J.T., M.E. Lustburg, G. Lozanski, S.L. Garman, W.H. Towns, C.M. Drohan, A. Lehman, X. Zhang, B. N. Bolon, L. Pan, A.D. Kinghorn, M.R. Grever, D.M. Lucas, and R.A. Baiocchi. 2015. The translation inhibitor silvestrol exhibits direct anti-tumor activity whle preserving innate and adaptive immunity against EBV-driven lymphoproliferative disease. Oncotarget 6:2693-2708.
  • Ren, Y., C. Yuan, Y. Deng, R. Kanagasabai, T.N. Ninh, V.T. Tu, H.-B.Chai, D.D. Soejarto, J.R. Fuchs, J.C. Yalowich, J. Yu, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2015. Cytotoxic and natural killer cell stimulatory constituents of Phyllanthus songboiensis. Phytochemistry 111:132-140.
  • Pan, L., C. Terrazas, U. Muñoz Acuña, T.N. Ninh, H. Chai, E.J. Carcache de Blanco, D.D. Soejarto, A.R. Satoskar, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2014. Bioactive indole alkaloids isolated from Alstonia angustifolia. Phytochem. Lett. 10: liv-lix. (Special section of issue 4 in honor of the late Prof. Andrew Marston).
  • Ding, H., B. Casto, Y. Deng, W. Duan, N. Zhang, S. Cole, K. La Perle, X. Pan, A.D. Kinghorn, and S.M. D’Ambrosio. 2014. Avocado extract inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouches. Med. Chem. S1:008. (Special issue entitled “Cancer Prevention and Therapy”).
  • Callahan, K.P., M. Minhajuddin, C. Corbett, E. Lagadinou, R.M. Rossi, V. Grose, M.M. Balys, L. Pan, S. Jacob, A. Frontier, M.R. Grever, D.M. Lucas, A.D. Kinghorn, J. Liesveld, M.W. Becker, and C.T. Jordan. 2014. Flavaglines target primitive leukemia cells and enhance anti-leukemia drug activity. Leukemia 28:1960-1968.
  • Yong, Y., L. Pan, Y. Ren, N. Fatima, S. Ahmed, L.C. Chang, X. Zhang, A.D. Kinghorn,. S.M. Swanson, and E.J. Carcache de Blanco. 2014. Assay development for the discovery of semaphorin 3B inducing agents from natural product sources. Fitoterapia 98C, 184-191.
  • Deng, Y., J. Chu, Y. Ren, Z. Fan, X. Ji, B. Mundy-Bosse, S. Yuan, T. Hughes, J. Zhang, B. Cheema, A.T. Camardo, Y. Xia, L-C. Wu, L.-S. Wang, X. He, A.D. Kinghorn, X. Li, J. Yu, and M.A. Caligiuri. 2014. The natural product phyllanthusmin C selectively enhances IFN-gamma production by human natural killer cells through upregulation of TLC-mediated NF-B signaling. J. Immunol. 193, 2994-3002.
  • Li, J., L. Pan, J.N. Fletcher, L. Wei, Y. Deng, M.A. Vincent, J.P. Slack, T.S. McClusky, Z. Jia, M. Cushman, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2014. In vitro evaluation of potential bitterness-masking terpenoids from the Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis). J. Nat. Prod. 77:1739-1743. (Cited in the “Science and Technology Concentrates” section of Chemical & Engineering News, July 21, 2014, p. 29).
  • Muñoz Acuña, U., S. Matthew, L. Pan, A.D. Kinghorn, S.M. Swanson, and E.J. Carcache de Blanco. 2014. Apoptosis induction by 13-acetoxyrolandrolide through the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. Phytother. Res., 28:1045-1053.
  • Lezama-Dávilla, C.M., L. Pan, A.P. Isaac-Márquez, C. Tarrazas, S. Oghumu, R. Isaac-Márquez, E. Calomeni, A.D. Kinghorn, and A.R. Satoskar. 2014. Pentalinon andrieuxii root extract is effective in the topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana. Phytother. Res. 28:909-916.
  • Ren, Y., D.D. Lantvit, Y. Deng, R. Kanagasabai, J.C. Gallucci, T.N. Ninh, H.-B.Chai, D.D. Soejarto, J.R. Fuchs, J.C. Yalowich, J. Yu, S.M. Swanson, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2014. Potent cytotoxic arylnaphthalene lignan lactones from Phyllanthus poilanei. J. Nat. Prod. 77:1494-1504.
  • Li, J., L. Pan, C.B. Naman, Y. Deng, H. Chai, W.J. Keller, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2014. Pyrrole alkaloids with potential cancer chemopreventive activity isolated from a goji berry-contaminated commercial sample of African mango. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62:5054-5060.
  • Ren, Y., C. Yuan, Y. Qian, H. Chai, X. Chen, M. Goetz, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2014. Constituents of an extract of Crytocarya rubra housed in a repository with cytotoxic and glucose transport inhibitory effects. J. Nat. Prod.77:550-556. (Special issue in honor of Prof. Otto Sticher).
  • Bueno Pérez, L., L. Pan, U. Muñoz Acuña, J. Li, H.-B. Chai, J.C. Galucci, T.N. Ninh, E.J. Carcache de Blanco, D.D. Soejarto, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2014. Caeruleanone A, a rotenoid with an unprecedented arrangement of the D-ring from the fruits of Milletia caerulea. Org. Lett. 16:1462-1465.
  • Yong, Y., S. Matthew, J. Wittwer, L. Pan, Q. Shen, A.D. Kinghorn, S.M. Swanson, and E.J. Carcache de Blanco. 2013. Dichamanetin inhibits cancer cell growth by affecting ROS-related signaling components through mitochondrial-related apoptosis. Anticancer Res. 33:5349-5355.
  • Muñoz Acuña, U., Q. Shen, Y. Ren, D.D. Lantvit, J.A. Wittwer, A.D. Kinghorn, S.M. Swanson,, and E.J. Carcache de Blanco. 2013. Goyazensolide induces apoptosis in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Int. J. Cancer Res. 9:36-53.
  • Bueno Pérez, L., L. Pan, E.J. Sass, S.V. Gupta, A. Lehman, A.D. Kinghorn, and D.M. Lucas. 2013. Potentiating effect of the flavonolignan (-)-hydnocarpin in combination with vincristine in sensitive and P-glycoprotein-expressing acute lymphoblastic leukemic cell lines. Phytother. Res. 27:1735-1738.
  • Kogure, T., A.D. Kinghorn, I. Yan, B. Bolon, D.M. Lucas, M.R. Grever, and T. Patel. 2013. Therapeutic potential of the translation inhibitor silvestrol in hepatocellular cancer. PLoS One 8: e76136.
  • Li, J., L. Pan, Y. Deng, U. Muñoz-Acuña, C. Yuan, H. Lai, H.-B. Chai, T.E. Chagwedera, N.R. Farnsworth, E.J. Carcache de Blanco, C. Li, D.D. Soejarto, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2013. Sphenostylins A-K, bioactive modified isoflavonoid constituents of the root bark of Sphenostylis marginata. J. Org. Chem. 78:10166-10177.
  • Spear, S.A., S.S. Burns, J.L. Oblinger, Y. Ren, L. Pan, A.D. Kinghorn, D.B. Welling, and L.-S. Chang. 2013. Natural compounds as potential treatments of NF2-deficient schwannoma and meningioma: cucurbitacin D and goyazensolide. Otol. Neurotol. 34:1519-1527.
  • Ren, Y., F. Jiménez, R. García, M. Mejía, H. Chai, N.R. Farnsworth, D.D. Soejarto, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2013. A cytotoxic dimeric furanoheliangolide from Piptocoma rufescens. Tetrahedron Lett. 54:5457-5460.
  • Bueno Pérez, L., J. Li, D.D. Lanvit, L. Pan, T.N. Ninh, H.-B. Chai, D.D. Soejarto, S.M. Swanson, D.M. Lucas, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2013. Bioactive compounds from Indigofera spicata. J. Nat. Prod 76:1498-1504.
  • Ren, Y., H. Chai, M. Goetz, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2013. A cytotoxic decanaphthanylpropenal derivative and tetrahydrofuran lignans from the stems of Cameraria latifolia. Tetrahedron Lett. 54:4854-4858.
  • Li, L., A.-R. Han, A.D. Kinghorn, R. Frye, H. Debendorf, and V. Butterweck. 2013. Pharmacokinetics properties of pure -mangostin in rats in comparison to a mangosteen fruit extract. Planta Med. 79: 646-653.
  • Alachkar H., R. Santhanam, J.C. Harb, D.M. Lucas, J.J. Oaks, C.J. Hickey, L. Pan, A.D. Kinghorn, M.A. Caligiuri, D. Perotti, J.C. Byrd, R. Garcon, M.R. Grever, and G. Marcucci. 2013. Silvestrol exhibits significant in vivo and in vitro antileukemic activities and inhibits FLT3 and miR-155 expressions in acute myeloid leukemia. J. Hematol. Oncol. 6:21.
  • Pan, L., U. Muñoz Acuña, J. Li, N. Jena, T.N. Ninh, C.M. Pannell, H.-B. Chai, J.R. Fuchs, E.J. Carcache de Blanco, D.D. Soejarto, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2013. Bioactive flavaglines and other constituents isolated from Aglaia perviridis. J. Nat. Prod. 76:394-404. (Special issue in honor of Dr. Lester A. Mitscher).
  • Endeshaw, M., X. Zhu, S. He, T. Pandharkar, E. Cason, K.V. Mhaasenan, H. Agarwal, C. Li, M. Munde, W.D. Wilson, M. Bahar, R.W. Doskotch, A.D. Kinghorn, M. Kaiser, R. Brun, M.E. Drew, and K.A. Werbovetz. 2013. 8,8-Dialkyldihydroberberines with potent antiprotozoal activity. J. Nat. Prod. 76:311-315. (Special issue in honor of Dr. Lester A. Mitscher).
  • Still, P.C., B. Yi, T. Gonzalez Muskus, L. Pan, R. Pavlovicz, H.-B. Chai, T. Ninh, C. Li, D.D. Soejarto, D. McKay, and A. Douglas Kinghorn. 2013. Alkaloids from Microcos paniculata with cytotoxic and nicotinic receptor antagonistic activities. J. Nat. Prod. 76:243-249.
  • Chitchumroonchokchai, C., J. Thomas-Ahner, J. Li, K. Riedl, J. Nopntakham, S. Suksamrarrn, S.K. Clinton, A.D. Kinghorn, and M.L. Failla. 2013. Antitumorigenicity of dietary -mangostin in a HT-29 colon cell xenograft model and the tissue distribution of xanthones and their phase II metabolites. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 57:203-211.
  • Li, J., C. Yuan, L. Pan, H. Chai, W.J. Keller, and A.D. Kinghorn. 2012. Antioxidant and quinone reductase-inhibitory constituents of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60:11551-11560.